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Mark Lai

Title: Asst Professor
Tel: 513-556-1031
Email: hok.lai@uc.edu

As a quantitative research methodologist, my current research interest includes developing and evaluating methods to estimate effect size, understanding the need for multilevel modeling in education, and exploring interpretable ways to evaluate the impact of measurement non-invariance. I am also interested in collaborations in substantive areas such as addiction and child development.

View Curriculum Vitae (pdf)

Personal website: https://marklai.netlify.com


  • Bachelor of Social Science, University of Macau, Macau (Psychology).
  • Ph.D., Texas A&M University (Educational Psychology).

Research Information

Research Support

  • (PI), Lai, Hok Chio, The Ohio Supercomuter Center, Ohio Supercomputer Center. (Ohio Supercomputer Center), $.00. 12/01/2015 to 11/30/2017. Status: Awarded.
  • (PI), Lai, Hok Chio, Impact of Measurement Bias on the Validity of Intervention Studies, UC's University Research Council. (URC Interdisciplinary Awards AY2016-17), $10,000.00. 05/01/2017 to 04/30/2018. Status: Active.


Peer-reviewed Publications

  • Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., Tong, K., & Yu, M. S. (2016). (In Press). Youth gambling in Macao: The direct and mediating effects of gambling refusal self-efficacy on disordered gambling among high school and undergraduate students.. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.
  • Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., & Tong, K. (2015). Internet gambling among community adults and university students in Macao. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 643–657.
  • Kim, M., Kwok, O., Yoon, M., Willson, V. L., & Lai, M. H. C. (2015). (In Press). Specification search for identifying the correct mean trajectory in latent growth models: A Monte Carlo study. Journal of Experimental Education.
  • Lai, M. H. C., & Kwok, O. (2015). Examining the rule of thumb of not using multilevel modeling: The “design effect smaller than two rule”. Journal of Experimental Education, 83, 423–438. [Link]
  • Lai, M. H. C., Wu, A. M. S., & Tong, K. (2015). Validation of the Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese undergraduate students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 243–256.
  • Lai, M. H. C., & Yoon, M. (2015). A modified comparative fit index for factorial invariance studies. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 22, 236–248.
  • McCord, C. E., Elliott, T. R., Berry, J. W., Underhill, A. T., Fine, P. R., & Lai, M. H. C. (2015). (In Press). Trajectories of happiness five years following medical discharge for traumatic disability: Differences between insider and outsider perspectives. Journal of Happiness Studies.
  • Hernandez, C. L., Elliott, T. R., Berry, J. W., Underhill, A. T., Fine, P. R., & Lai, M. H. C. (2014). Trajectories of life satisfaction: Five years after medical discharge for traumatically acquired disability. Rehabilitation Psychology, 59, 183–192.
  • Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., & Chan, I. T. (2014). Coaching behaviors, satisfaction of needs, and intrinsic motivation among Chinese university athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26, 334–348.
  • Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., & Tong, K. (2014). Gambling Disorder: Estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28, 1190–1197.
  • Lai, M. H. C., & Kwok, O. (2014). Standardized mean differences in two-level cross-classified random effect models. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 39, 282–302. [Link]
  • Lai, M. H. C., Ren, M. Y. W., Wu, A. M. S., & Hung, E. P. W. (2013). Motivation as mediator between national identity and intention to volunteer. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 128–142.
  • Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., Tong, K., & Tao, V. Y. K. (2013). Chinese attitudes, norms, behavioral control and gambling involvement in Macao. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 749–763.
  • Chu, Y., Lai, M. H. C., Xu, Y., & Zhou, Y. (2012). Test review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 520–524.
  • Richardson, G. B., Dariotis, J. K., & Lai, M. H. C. (2017). (In Press). From environment to mating competition and Super-K in a predominantly urban sample of young adults. Evolutionary Psychology.
  • Richardson, G. B., Sanning, B. K., Lai, M. H. C., Copping, L., Hardesty, P. H., & Kruger, D. J. (2017). (In Press). On the psychometric study of human life history strategies: State of the science and evidence of two independent dimensions. Evolutionary Psychology.
  • Lai, M. H. C., & Kwok, O. (2016). Estimating standardized effect sizes for two-and three- level partially nested data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 51, 740--756.
  • Lai, M. H. C., Kwok, O., Hsiao, Y., & Qian, C. (2017). (In Press). Finite population correction for two-level hierarchical linear modeling. Psychological Methods. [Link]
  • Lai, M. H. C., Kwok, O., Yoon, M., & Hsiao, Y. (2017). (In Press). Understanding the impact of partial factorial invariance on selection accuracy: An R script. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. [Link]
  • Hsiao, Y., Kwok, O., Lai, M. H. C. (2017). (In Press). Evaluation of two methods for modeling measurement errors when testing interaction effects with observed composite scores.. Educational and Psychological Measurement. [Link]
  • Lai, M. H. C., & Zhang, J. (2017). (In Press). Evaluating fit indices for multivariate t-based structural equation modeling with data contamination. Frontiers in Psychology. [Link]